SCIENCE

WHAT MAKES IT DIFFERENT?

The NEUBIE is unique for several reasons. It uses pulsed direct current (DC) as opposed to alternating current (AC); it has unique effects on the body's tissues to promote healing; and it has unique effects on the nervous system that, when combined with the NeuFit System, allows practitioners to provide a meaningful dose of neuromuscular re-education. 

Using DC is important, because it has numerous, positive biological effects. DC fields have been shown to accelerate the body’s own physiological processes of healing, repair, and regeneration, (1-6) and to have unique effects on the nervous/neuromuscular system. (6-9) Although this has been known for a long time, most devices out there are alternating current (AC). These devices are cheaper and easier to engineer, and most people don’t know the difference. Unfortunately, they won’t have anywhere near the same effect at the cellular level.

In addition to having positive effects on tissues, the NEUBIE is used along with the NeuFit System for neuromuscular re-education. The NeuFit system is based on new research showing that electrical stimulation can affect reflex patterns, (10-13) brain activity, (14-17) muscle output, (18-19) and pain. (20-22) 

Treatments with the NEUBIE and NeuFit System are active rather than passive. Traditional e-stim treatments have patients lying down, passively accepting the current and not moving. In contrast, the DC signal of the NEUBIE actually permits movement, even at therapeutic levels of stimulation. This allows for optimal, eccentric contractions, which research is proving to be a major factor in effective rehabilitation (23-25).

 

References

 

Chen, Y., Ye, L., Guan, L., Fan, P., Liu, R., Liu, H., Chen, J., Zhu, Y., Wei, X., Liu, Y., Bai, H., Physiological electric field works via the VEGF receptor to stimulate neovessel formation of vascular endothelial cells in a 3D environment. Biol Open, 7(9), 2018.

 

Hu, W.W., Chen, T.C., Tsao, C.W., Cheng, Y.C., The effects of substrate-mediated electrical stimulation on the promotion of osteogenic differentiation and its optimization. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2018.

 

Rouabhia, M., Park, H., Meng, S., Derbali, H., Zhang, Z. Electrical stimulation promotes wound healing by enhancing dermal fibroblast activity and promoting myofibroblast transdifferentiation. PLoS One. 8(8), 2013.

 

Borgens R.B., Vanable J.W., Jaffe L.F., Bioelectricity and regeneration. I. Initiation of frog limb regeneration by minute currents. J Exp Zool. 200(3), 1977.

 

Leppik L.P., Froemel D., Slavici A., Ovadia Z.N., Hudak L., Henrich D., Marzi I., Barker J.H., Effects of electrical stimulation on rat limb regeneration, a new look at an old model. Sci Rep. 5, 2015.

 

McCaig C.D., Rajnicek A.M., Song B., Zhao M., Controlling cell behavior electrically: current views and future potential. Physiol Rev 85(3), 2005.

 

Latchoumane, C.V.,, Jackson, L.,, Sendi, M.S.E., Tehrani, K.F., Mortensen, L.J., Stice, S.L., Ghovanloo, M., Karumbaiah, L. Chronic Electrical Stimulation Promotes the Excitability and Plasticity of ESC-derived Neurons following Glutamate-induced Inhibition In vitro. Sci Rep, 8(1), 2018

 

Petersen EA, Slavin KV. Peripheral nerve/field stimulation for chronic pain. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 25(4), 2014.

 

Aplin, F.P., Singh, D., Delia Santina, C.C., Fridman, G.Y., Ionic direct current modulation for combined inhibition/excitation of the vestibular system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2018.

 

Zehr, E.P., Collins, D.F., Chua, R., Human interlimb reflexes evoked by electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves innervating the hand and foot. Exp Brain Res 140:495-504, 2001

 

Clair, J.M., Anderson-Reid, J.M., Graham, C.M., Collins, D.F., Postactivation depression and recovery of reflex transmission during repetitive electrical stimulation of the human tibial nerve. J Neurophysiol 106: 184-192, 2011 

 

Clair, J.M., Okuma, Y., Misiaszek, J.E., Collins, D.F., Reflex pathways connect receptors in the human lower leg to the erector spinae muscles of the lower back. Exp Brain Res 196:217-227, 2009

 

Kitago, T., Mazzocchio, R., Liuzzi, G., Cohen, L.G., Modulation of H-reflex excitability by tetanic stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 115: 858-861, 2004

 

Hamdy, S., Rothwell, J.C., Aziz, Q., Singh, K.D., Thompson, D.G., Long-term reorganization of human motor cortex driven by short-term sensory stimulation. Nature Neurosci 1: 64-68, 1998

 

Ridding, M.C., Brouwer, B., Miles, T.S., Pitcher, J.B., Thompson, P.D., Changes in muscle responses to stimulation of the motor cortex induced by peripheral nerve stimulation in human subjects. Exp Brain Res 131(1): 135-43, 2000

 

Kalisch, T., Tegenthoff, M., Dinse, H.R., Repetitive electric stimulation elicits enduring improvement of sensorimotor performance in seniors. Neural Plast 2010:690351, 2010

 

Charlton, C.S., Ridding, M.C., Thompson, P.D., Miles, T.S., Prolonged peripheral nerve stimulation induces persistent changes in excitability of human motor cortex. J Neurol Sci 208: 79-85, 2003

 

Collins, D.F., Burke, D., Gandevia, S.C., Sustained contractions produced by plateau-like behaviour in human motoneurones. J Physiol 538.1: 289-301, 2002

 

Dean, J.C., Yates, L.M., Collins, D.F., Turning on the central contribution to contractions evoked by neuromuscular stimulation. J Appl Physiol 103: 170-176, 2007

 

Stackhouse S.K., Taylor C.M., Eckenrode B.J., Stuck E., Davey H., Effects of Noxious Electrical Stimulation and Eccentric Exercise on Pain Sensitivity in Asymptomatic Individuals. PM R, 8(5), 2016.

 

Fujii-Abe K, Umino M, Fukayama H, Kawahara H., Enhancement of Analgesic Effect by Combination of Non-Noxious Stimulation and Noxious Stimulation in Humans. Pain Pract, 16(2), 2016.

 

Eckenrode BJ, Stackhouse SK., Improved Pressure Pain Thresholds and Function Following Noxious Electrical Stimulation on a Runner with Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy: a Case Report. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 10(3), 2015.

 

Galloway, M.T., Lalley, A.L., Shearn, J.T., The role of mechanical loading in tendon development, maintenance, injury, and repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 95(17), 2013.

 

Kaux J.F., Libertiaux V., Leprince P., Fillet M., Denoel V., Wyss C., Lecut C., Gothot A., Le Goff C., Croisier J.L., Crielaard J.M., Drion P., Eccentric Training for Tendon Healing After Acute Lesion: A Rat Model. Am J Sports Med, 45(6), 2017.

 

Geremia, J.M., Baroni, B.M., Bobbert, M.F., Bini, R.R., Lanferdini, F.J., Vaz, M.A., Effects of high loading by eccentric triceps surae training on Achilles tendon properties in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol, 118(8), 2018.  

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